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About Grain Dryer
Dec 24, 2018

Grain drying is process of drying grain to prevent spoilage during storage. The grain drying described in this article is that which uses fuel- or electric-powered processes supplementary to natural ones, including swathing/windrowing for drying by ambient air and sunshine.

Hundreds of millions of tonnes of wheat, corn, soybean, rice and other grains as sorghum, sunflower seeds, rapeseed/canola, barley, oats, etc., are dried in grain dryers.[1] In the main agricultural countries, drying comprises the reduction of moisture from about 17-30%w/w to values between 8 and 15%w/w, depending on the grain. The final moisture content for drying must be adequate for storage. The more oil the grain has, the lower its storage moisture content will be (though its initial moisture for drying will also be lower). Cereals are often dried to 14% w/w, while oilseeds, to 12.5% (soybeans), 8% (sunflower) and 9% (peanuts). Drying is carried out as a requisite for safe storage, in order to inhibit microbial growth. However, low temperatures in storage are also highly recommended to avoid degradative reactions and, especially, the growth of insects and mites. A good maximum storage temperature is about 18 °C.

The largest dryers are normally used "Off-farm", in elevators, and are of the continuous type: Mixed-flow dryers are preferred in Europe, while Cross-flow dryers in the United States. In Argentina, both types are commonly found. Continuous flow dryers may produce up to 100 metric tonnes of dried grain per hour. The depth of grain the air must traverse in continuous dryers range from some 0.15 m in Mixed flow dryers to some 0.30 m in Cross-Flow. Batch dryers are mainly used "On-Farm", particularly in the United States and Europe. They normally consist of a bin, with heated air flowing horizontally from an internal cylinder through an inner perforated metal sheet, then through an annular grain bed, some 0.50 m thick (coaxial with the internal cylinder) in radial direction, and finally across the outer perforated metal sheet, before being discharged to the atmosphere. The usual drying times range from 1 h to 4 h depending on how much water must be removed, type of grain, air temperature and the grain depth. In the United States, continuous counterflow dryers may be found on-farm, adapting a bin to slowly drying grain fed at the top and removed at the bottom of the bin by a sweeping auger.

Grain drying is an active area of manufacturing and research. The performance of a dryer can be simulated with computer programs based on mathematical models that represent the phenomena involved in drying: physics, physical chemistry, thermodynamics, and heat and mass transfer. Most recently computer models have been used to predict product quality by achieving a compromise between drying rate, energy consumption, and grain quality. A typical quality parameter in wheat drying is breadmaking quality and germination percentage whose reductions in drying are somewhat related.

Grain Drying fundamentals

Drying starts at the bottom of the bin, which is the first place air contacts. The dry air is brought up by the fan through a layer of wet grain. Drying happens in a layer of 1 to 2 feet thick, which is called the drying zone. The drying zone moves from the bottom of the bin to the top, and when it reaches the highest layer, the grain is dry. The grain below drying zone is in equilibrium moisture content with drying air, which means it is safe for storage; while the grain above still needs drying. The air is then forced out the bin through exhaust vent.

Allowable Storage Time

Allowable storage time is an estimate of how long the grain needs to be dried before spoilage and maintain grain quality during storage. In grain storage process, fungi or molds are the primary concern. Many other factors, such as insects, rodents, and bacteria, also affect the condition of storage. The lower the grain temperature is, the longer the allowable storage time will be.[2]

Proper moisture levels for safe storage 

It is possible for long period safe storage if grain moisture content is less than 14%, and stored away from insects, rodents and birds. The following figure is the recommended moisture content for safe storage.[3]


Equilibrium Moisture Content

Moisture content in grain is related to the relative humidity and the temperature of the surrounding air. Equilibrium moisture content point is the point when grain no longer losing or gaining water when contacting with drying air. The final moisture content of the grain is up to the amount of moisture in the drying air, which is the relative humidity. The low relative humidity means air is dry and it has a large potential of picking up water. The lower the relative humidity is, the drier the air is. In general, one-half reduce in relative humidity is caused by 20° degree increase in air temperature.[4]


Heated air may be used in grain drying process. It can not only accelerate moisture migration inside the kernel, but also can evaporate the moisture on the surface. The major problem about heated air for drying process is the kernel temperature. The grain kernel may be damaged by high kernel temperatures. Usually, kernel temperature is lower than the air temperature. For different use of the corn, temperatures vary. For example, for seed corn, the maximum temperature is 110 °F; for livestock feeding corn, the maximum temperature is 180 °F.


Aeration process refers to the process of moving air through grain. Airflow is a measurement of the amount of air in cubic feet per minute (CFM). In grain drying process, drying time is largely depended on aeration rates. Without sufficient airflow, grain may be damaged before drying is complete. Fans are used to move air through grain.[5]


The drying cost is made up of two parts: the capital cost and the operating cost. Capital cost is largely depend on the drying rate requirement, and equipment cost. Operating cost refers to fuel, electricity and labor force cost. The amount of energy required to dry a bushel of grain is similar for all the drying methods. Some methods depend largely on natural air, while others may use LP heat or natural gas, which make energy cost vary. Basically, fuel and electrical power are the major portions of the operating cost.[6] Drying cost is based on the B.T.U. consumption of temperature change from environment to desired one.

Classification of grain drying methods

Applications of grain drying

Sunflower drying

For different types of sunflowers, the preservation moisture content is different. Oilseed sunflowers are better dried to 9 percent moisture content, while bird seed sunflowers are 10 percent moisture content. Compared to corn drying, sunflowers are more easily dried and kept in safe storage. What's more, high temperature may not have adverse effect on sunflowers kernel, which may be the reason of the fatty acid composition. There was no evidence of damage when air was heated up to 220 °F in drying. However, fine hairs and fibers on the seed coat of sunflowers may cause fire hazard. It is suggested that remove the flaming particles first when heating the sunflowers.

Bean drying

The seed coat of bean is quite fragile and easy to damaged in cracking and splitting, which may cause loss to the producer. Some studies on beans suggested that in order to avoid cracking, it is better to keep drying air above 40 percent relative humidity.[11]

Corn drying

When drying corn kernels it is important to keep in mind that cracks and fractures in the corn can lead to many problems in both the storage and processing. The major problem that occurs from high temperature drying and then rapid cooling of the grain is stress-cracking. Stress-cracking is when fractures become present in the corn endosperm. Stress-cracked kernels often absorb water too quickly, are more likely to become broken, and are increasingly susceptible to insect and mold damage during dry storage. In order to reduce the amount of grain that is lost due to stress-cracking, medium temperature and slow cooling, or natural air and low temperature drying methods should be employed.[12]